CST Epigenetics

Understanding the role epigenetics plays in cancer initiation and progression is critical when looking for new methods of prevention, detection, and treatment. We’ve put together a starter’s guide on important epigenetic biomarkers, regulators, and histone modifications for several types of cancer.

Check out the links below to get started.

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Breast Cancer

Breast cancer can be driven by several different epigenetic mechanisms. Histone methylation by the Ezh2 protein drives gene silencing required for the maintenance of cell identity. Dysregulation of histone methylation leads to loss of cell identity, which in turn leads to neoplastic transformation and increased breast tumor invasiveness. Additionally, transcriptional repression due to the hypermethylation of nuclear receptor promoter regions leads to the formation of ER– and/or PR– breast cancers that are not responsive to tamoxifen. Finally, phosphorylation of ER at Ser167 promotes ER-dependent transcription and is attributed to increased resistance to tamoxifen.

 

  1. Overexpression of Ezh2 plays a role in many cancers, including breast cancer, where it adds methyl groups to H3K27 triggering gene silencing.

    – Ezh2 (D2C9) XP® Rabbit mAb #5246 – WB, IP, IF, F, IHC, ChIP, ChIP-seq

Figure 1
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human lymphoma using Ezh2 (D2C9) XP® Rabbit mAb.

 

Figure 1
Chromatin immunoprecipitations were performed with cross-linked chromatin from Hela cells and either Ezh2 (D2C9) XP® Rabbit mAb or Tri-Methyl-Histone H3 (Lys27) (C36B11) Rabbit mAb, using SimpleChIP® Enzymatic Chromatin IP Kit (Magnetic Beads) #9003. DNA Libraries were prepared from 5ng enriched ChIP DNA for EZH2 ChIP-seq and 50ng enriched ChIP DNA for H3K27me3 ChIP-seq using SimpleChIP® ChIP-Seq DNA Library Prep Kit for Illumina® #56795, and sequenced on the Illumina NextSeq. EZH2 and H3K27me3 are known to associate with each other on chromatin. The figure shows binding of both EZH2 and H3K27me3 across the MYT1 gene.

 

 

  1. UTX is a counterpart to Ezh2 that removes methyl groups from H3K27.

    – UTX (D3Q1I) Rabbit mAb #33510 – WB, IP, IHC

Figure 2
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human breast carcinoma using UTX (D3Q1I) Rabbit mAb.

 

 

  1. Mutations in nuclear receptors such as Estrogen Receptor α and Progesterone Receptor will alter gene expression and can have a huge impact on treatment options in breast cancer.

    – Estrogen Receptor α (D8H8) Rabbit mAb #8644 – WB, IP, IF, ChIP, ChIP-seq
    – Phospho-Estrogen Receptor α (Ser167) (D5W3Z) Rabbit mAb #64508 – WB, IF
    – Progesterone Receptor A/B (D8Q2J) XP® Rabbit mAb #8757 – WB, IP, IF, F, IHC, ChIP, ChIP-seq

 

  1. Watch out for increased H3K27 methylation caused by Ezh2 overexpression or UTX mutation.

    – Tri-Methyl-Histone H3 (Lys27) (C36B11) Rabbit mAb #9733 – WB, IHC, IF, F, ChIP